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Part II: ONE Medium Sized Essay: Answer this Medium sized essay in three to four substantial paragraphs with specific examples, making sure you address all parts of the question (50 points out of 100).
1) The U.S. and Latin America During the Cold War, 1954 to 1991.
Write a well-crafted essay in which you analyze the U.S.-Latin America relationship during the Cold War (for Latin America, that begins with the U.S overthrow of the democratically elected Arbenz administration in Guatemala in 1954). Be sure to address: Guatemala during Neocolonialism – the role that US railroad and banana and fruit companies came to play in Guatemala and Central America in the early 20th century; the way Guatemala was pulled into the vortex of the Cold War (1954 forward); describe how and why the U.S. overthrew Arbenz in 1954 and the consequences that that had for Guatemala and then the rest of Latin America (Cuba, Chile, Brazil, El Salvador, Nicaragua…). How did the Cuban Revolution in 1959 impact the hemisphere? What were the US responses to the Cuban Revolution and to social revolutionary activity in Latin America? (“School of Americas”; Military…) How and why did the Latin American militaries come to dominate politics in Latin America during the Cold War? What was the U.S. role in that? What were the consequences of that? Discuss the impact of the Cold War on Latin America and its impact on various sectors of Latin American society.
Be sure to provide examples of the way other Latin American countries were affected by their Cold War relationship with the U.S. (discuss at least one other country other than Guatemala and Cuba: Nicaragua, El Salvador, Chile, Argentina, or Brazil, are good examples that we’ve seen in our lectures, films and sources). Provide specific examples and address all parts of the question.
Study hints: Our lecture notes from Guatemala ushers in the Cold war through Cuba, Central America and the rest; my articles: “The US and Latin America since the end of the 19th Century,” “The Monroe Doctrine”; Chasteen’s ch’s 9 and 10 (“Reaction”); Wood and Alexander’s sections: “Social Revolution”, “Cold War”, “The Lesser of Two Evils” by David Schmitz, & “The Beliefs behind the Policies” by Lars Schoultz; and films “CNN Cold War: Reds” and CNN Cold War: Backyard”, and “School of the Americas: School of Assassins”