Philosophical Reflection: Virtue Ethics

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The study of good and evil behavior is referred to as ethics. Ethics is also a branch of philosophy concerned with what is right and bad. Ethical theories often focus on presenting views related to characterizing an individual’s behavior in relation to a particular situation. Ethics is a way of life that includes the pursuit of happiness, which is in line with the set of values and viewpoints that individuals choose to hold. Throughout history, philosophers have divided acts and conduct into good and wrong categories. Many philosophers believe that every action has consequences, and that these consequences may be used to characterize an action as ethically justified or immoral. Ethics, as a part of philosophy, frequently raises issues and investigates the good and wrong. The goal of ethics is to determine an individual’s moral duty in diverse situations. As a result, ethics is the standard assessment of whether or not certain behaviours or ideals are right or wrong.

It is important to highlight that Aristotle was a well-known contribution to this ethical debate. His perspective on what defines an individual’s morals was acknowledged, yet it remains fascinating. The ultimate purpose of a human being and nature, according to Aristotle, is to acquire happiness. As a result, he believes that all human behaviors are merely methods to achieving happiness. His ideas contributed to the development of ethics as a discipline.

Ethical theories

Cognitive and non-cognitive ethical theories are the two main kinds of ethical theories. Meta-ethics is divided into two categories: cognitive and non-cognitive theories. The difference between these two types of ethical theories is that the non-cognitive class argues against the existence of moral truths. Moral signals, according to the non-cognitive approach, are neither true nor wrong. Moral signals, according to this idea, are merely emotional emotions. This type of non-cognitive ethical philosophy is further divided into two types: prescriptivism and emotivism. Emotivism entails the speaker’s sentiments being expressed through a message. Prescriptivism, on the other hand, refers to a normative declaration made by a person to convey an explicit meaning.

Moral assertions, on the other hand, can be true or incorrect, according to cognitive theories. Relativism and universalism are two terms used to describe this category of ethical beliefs. It is also critical to distinguish between the views of relativism and universalism in cognitive ethical theories. The relativist approach of ethics maintains that there is no universal norm of moral behavior upon which people must base their actions and personalities. Morality, according to relativists, is determined by what an individual or society considers to be bad and right. As a result, relativism says that morality is decided by a society’s norms and behaviors. The universalism ethical theory, on the other hand, believes in the presence of universally recognized moral actions and behaviors that define what is moral and immoral. Individuals must conduct and behave in ways that adhere to a universally imposed standard code of ethics, according to universalism.

My philosophical reflections

The Universalist ethical theory, which is a subcategory of the cognitive viewpoint, is the one I feel has the most significance to my existence. I think that the world has a set of morally decent and excellent activities and behaviors that are usually acceptable and lawful. Similarly, there are activities and behaviors that are widely viewed as immoral and harmful throughout the world. As a result, a universal code of ethics for a certain region, organization, community, or country is feasible. I make every effort to act in a way that is consistent with universal moral standards. In today’s environment, when one’s freedom is not supposed to make another person uncomfortable, the relativist theory of ethics is no longer appropriate. If the world believed in relativist ethics, humans would live in a jungle, where existence would be determined by the fittest. Furthermore, I feel that there must be incorrect and right acts, resulting in immoral and moral behaviors, therefore the non-cognitive category of ethical theories cannot apply to my life.

I have always believed that it is good virtue to apply the universal or utilitarian ethical perspective when choosing between what is right and wrong. Utilitarianism is a normative ethical theory that bases right and wrong decisions on the results or consequences of a particular action. As a result, utilitarianism does not base its assessment of what is right or bad on the behaviors themselves. In assessing what is right or wrong, utilitarianism considers the number of individuals affected by a particular activity. As a result, while examining ethical conduct, the focus is on the individual, rather than the overall good for the majority of people. Utilitarianism is a philosophy that looks beyond one’s own interests and considers the predicament of others. This idea has been used to examine a variety of societal behaviors. It may be used to weigh the benefits and drawbacks of consuming marijuana recreationally. When considering the ethics of legalizing recreational marijuana, the focus should be on the potential number of patients.

Legalizing recreational marijuana might have a negative impact on the majority of the country’s people. A large number of users will have health concerns. It is well understood that consuming marijuana for recreational reasons is a kind of drug abuse. Marijuana smoking is known to cause lung illness and respiratory issues. Legalizing marijuana will allow a large number of individuals to use it freely. This trend will result in a considerable increase in the number of users, resulting in a large number of people being negatively affected by linked disorders. It means that hospitals will be flooded with patients suffering from various respiratory illnesses. In summary, legalizing marijuana would cause significant harm to the majority of users, who will develop respiratory problems and lung ailments. The amount of those who would be affected as secondary smokers must also be considered. According to studies, many people get marijuana-related ailments as a result of secondary smoking. When the two reasons for and against recreational marijuana legalization are evaluated, it is clear that making this substance legal is immoral. According to utilitarianism theory, the bulk of people would be badly affected by such a change, with only a small minority, particularly farmers, benefiting. From a utilitarian standpoint, legalizing marijuana is immoral.

For humans, ethics is a way of life. A person’s actions and general interaction with others are determined by the ethical ideas in which he or she believes. The Universalist perspective, which argues for the presence of a widely accepted and valid code of moral deeds and behaviors, is the most practical and pragmatic ethical philosophy. Any conduct or activity that does not fall within this range of approved behaviors and acts is considered immoral and wicked.

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